The increase of parathyroid hormone in the blood is hyperparathyroidism. It is the result of over functioning of any of the four parathyroid glands found in the neck. Hyperparathyroidism is of two types. It is primary hyperparathyroidism, when there is enlargement of the glands, which causes overproduction of the hormone and increased calcium levels in the blood. It is secondary hyperparathyroidism when another disease causes a decline in calcium levels in the body, which eventually results in increased levels of parathyroid hormone. Surgery is the most effective treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism. Other treatments include drugs or periodic tests and monitoring of the one density and blood calcium levels.
Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism can be light, indistinguishable or very severe.
The parathyroid glands can be the problem themselves, i.e. primary hyperparathyroidism or they might get dysfunctional as a result of another disease, i.e. secondary hyperparathyroidism.
- Noncancerous tumor on the gland
- Two or more are enlarged
- A cancerous tumor which is rare
- Severe calcium deficiency
- Excessive vitamin D deficiency
- Chronic kidney failure
There are a variety of ways for medical professionals to treat and diagnosis hyperparathyroidism.
- Blood Tests: If the level of calcium and parathyroid hormone in the blood is high it can make your doctor diagnose it as hyperparathyroidism.
- Diagnostic Tests: These are needed to screen out secondary causes, and find out possible complications and severity of the disorder. Some of these tests include, bone densitometry, urine tests, and tests of the kidneys.
- Before surgery imaging tests: Certain imaging tests, such as ultrasound, sestamibi parathyroid scan, and CT Scan, are usually needed by your doctor to screen out the parathyroid glands that are causing problem.
Depending on the severity of hyperparathyroidism, certain treatments will be used. The most common form of treatment is surgery.
Waiting: monitoring the symptoms
- Calcium levels are just slightly elevated.
- Kidneys function normally, and there are no stones.
- Bone density is slightly low or normal.
- There are no such symptoms that might improve after treatment.
- At a 95 percent success rate, surgery is the most recommended treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism.
- The surgery can be on an outpatient basis and the patient can leave the same day. In these cases, only very small incisions are made in the neck, with only local anesthetics.